A powerful and versatile new fixation protocol for immunohistology and in situ hybridization that preserves delicate tissues in planaria
Guerrero-Hernández, C., Doddihal, V., Mann, F.G., Sánchez Alvarado, A.
Whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) is a powerful and widely used technique to visualize the expression pattern of genes in different biological systems. Here we describe a new protocol for ISH and immunostaining in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The new Nitric Acid/Formic Acid (NAFA) protocol is compatible with both assays and prevents degradation of the epidermis or blastema. Instead of proteinase K digestion, formic acid treatment is used to permeabilize tissues and preserve antigen epitopes. We show that the NAFA protocol successfully permits development of chromogenic and fluorescent signals in situ, while preserving the anatomy of the animal. Further, the immunostaining of different proteins was compatible with the NAFA protocol following fluorescent in situ hybridization. Finally, we demonstrate with high resolution confocal imaging that the regeneration blastema is preserved when using the new method. This new NAFA protocol will be a valuable technique to study the process of wounding response and regeneration.
Guerrero-Hernández, C., Doddihal, V., Mann, F.G., Sánchez Alvarado, A., 2021. A powerful and versatile new fixation protocol for immunohistology and in situ hybridization that preserves delicate tissues in planaria. bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.11.01.466817